constantine xi speech

Nor does the narrative mention that it took 53 days for the Ottoman army of 100,000 to defeat the 10,000 Byzantine defenders. speech by Constantine XI. Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos was the last emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, today more commonly known as the Byzantine Empire. Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Christendom during the Middle Ages, the seat of the Byzantine emperor and the centre of a predominately Christian empire, steeped in Greek cultural and artistic influences, yet founded and maintained by a Roman legal and administrative system. He befriended the inhabitants of Galata, the wretches rejoice over this, as they are unaware of the parable of the farmer’s son who was roasting snails and said, ‘Oh stupid creature,’ etc. “I know the countless hordes of the impious will advance against us, according to their custom, violently, confidently and with great courage and force in order to overwhelm and wear out our few defenders with hardship. After establishing himself as the Despot, Constantine worked to strengthen the defence of the Morea, including reconstructing a wall across the Isthmus of Cori… Know this, too: If you keep my orders in your heart, I hope to God taht we will be delivered from His present, righteous threat. Present your shield, swords, arrows, and spears to them, imagining that you are a hunting party after wild boars, so that the impious may learn that they are dealing not with dumb animals but with their lords and masters, the descendants of the Greeks and the Romans. If God grants victory to the impious because of my own sins, we will endanger our lives for our holy faith, which Christ gave us with his own blood. Protect your heads with shields in combat and battle. I didnt skip anything. In the 15th century, Constantinople’s walls were widely recognized as the most formidable in all of Europe. I hand over to you my glorious, famous, respected, noble city, the shining Queen of cities, our homeland. He befriended the inhabitants of Galata, the wretches rejoice over this, as they are unaware of the parable of the Farmer’s son who was roasting snails and said, “Oh stupid creature,” etc. Constantine XI Palaeologos (1404-1453), also called Dragases, last Byzantine emperor, was born in 1404 in Mistra, was the son of Emperor Manuel II. Our enemies have none and use no such weapons. You are aware and know that this City was not only mine but yours too for many reasons. Byzantine history is full of incredible Godly men. Crying, “The City is lost, but I live,” Emperor Constantine XI stripped and flung off his royal regalia and “spurred on his horse and reached the spot where the Turks were coming in … When the shades of evening began to fall people moved, as if by instinct, towards the church of the Holy Wisdom. [5] 1492 – The Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella enter Granada at the conclusion of the Granada War . Suddenly, he appeared and built his castle in the straights of Asomatosso so he might be able to inflict daily harm on us. Realizing that all contacts with the Ottoman side were broken Emperor Constantine XI Palaeologus (1449-1453) ordered the closing of the city’s gates. Constantine XI Palaeologus , the last Byzantine emperor (1449–53), killed in the final defense of Constantinople against the Ottoman Turks. Even if one gains the entire world but loses his soul in the process, what will it benefit! I own Norwich’s Byzantium vol 3 and this speech is not in it. if only he had been Emperor at an earlier time. He gently kissed stubbed fingers that had been hacked off; he kissed empty eye sockets where eyes had been gouged out. Germanistan Fuhrer Merkel Warns Against “Radical” Brexit Speech by Constantine XI June 18, 2016, 1:00 PM updated January 14, 2018, 3:19 PM 3.2k Views 0 … A beautiful book, and extremely valuable as long as you are aware of its limitations. “Most noble leader, illustrious tribunes, generals, most courageous fellow soldiers and all loyal honest citizens! Final Speech Of The Last Roman Emperor Constantine XI, The Fall of the Byzantine Empire: A Chronicle by George Sphrantzes 1401-1477, Constantine XI Dragaš Palaeologus (1404–1453): The Last Emperor of Byzantium, The Siege and the Fall of Constantinople in 1453: Historiography, Topography, and Military Studies, The Eight Ecumenical Councils & Local Synods, The Dangers Of Great Teachers & Their Heresies – Saint Vincent of Lerins – The Commonitory – An Indictment Against the Reformation, Memento Mori – Morning Prayer – A Prayer to the Holy Trinity, Fatherland – Work – Family: My Political Compass Results, (Video) Memento Mori – Yukio Mishima – On an Honorable Death, Video: Seven Nation Army Can’t Stop Rhodesia. Battle. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Feb 12, 2020 - Constantine Palaologus XI speaks before his officers and allies before the final push of the siege of Constantinople by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed Bey When Constantinople's walls were finally breached, Constantine XI knew there would be no quarter, but he would not flee with the Genoese generals. I must have gotten it mixed up with another book. Constantine’s speech gave new heart to those who heard it. Constantine Palaologus XI speaks before his officers and allies before the final push of the siege of Constantinople by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed Bey. Your helmets, breastplates and suits of armour are fully sufficient together with your other weapons and will prove very effective in battle. If one dumb beast put another to flight, we, the masters of horses and animals, can surely even do better against our advancing enemies, since they are dumb animals, worse even than pigs. Emperor Constantine XI attended a final religious service and gave a rousing speech to the men and women of Constantinople. For a long time they will continue so and will also release over us countless rocks, all sorts of arrows and missiles, like the sand of the sea. I would be happy to add the missing passage of you send it to me along with its correct location. You know well that the hour has come: the enemy of our faith wishes to oppress us even more closely by sea and land with all his engines and skill to attack us with the entire strength of this siege force, as a snake about to spew its venom; he is in a hurry to devour us, like a savage lion. Now he wants to enslave her and throw the yoke upon the Mistress of Cities, our holy churches, where the Holy Trinity was worshipped, where the Holy Ghost was glorified in hymns, where angels were heard praising in chant the deity of and the incarnation of God’s word, he wants to turn into shrines of his blasphemy, shrines of the mad and false Prophet, Mohammed, as well as into stables for his horses and camels. We are placing all hope in the irresistible glory of God. Thank you fr bringing it to my attention. Then the Ottomans discovered a door ajar to the Kerkoporta Gate. Since the mutual excommunications of 1054, the Pope in Rome was committed to establishing authority over the eastern church. With the grace and strength granted you by God and with help from our Holy Trinity, in which we have placed all our hope, let us force the enemy to depart from here in shame.”, Other Academic Sources Our enemies have no and use no such weapons. 1449 – Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor at Mystras. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Suddenly, he appeared and built his castle in the straights of Asomatosso he might be able to inflict daily harm on us. He is sometimes referred to as Constantine XII, based on the erroneous idea that Constantine Lascaris was crowned in 1204. Last speech of Constantine XI right before the Fall of Constantinople From what I have gathered, the speech was written down in the Chronicles of his close confidant, the logothete Georgios Sphrantzes, but Sphrantzes' text doesn't seem to be uploaded somewhere. Constantine XI Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος, Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos), (February 8, 1405[1] – May 29, 1453) was the last reigning Emperor of the Byzantine Empire, from 1448 to his death. You know well that the hour has come: the enemy of our faith wishes to oppress us even more closely by sea and land with all his engines and skill to attack us with the entire strength of this siege force, as a snake about to spew its venom; he is in a hurry to devour us, like a savage lion. Runciman believed in the art of turning history into readable narrative--something he does with remarkable skill--and the result is a book that is powerful and engrossing, but which, by necessity, must elide, simplify, and generally stick to a single narrative perspective. When Constantinople’s walls were finally breached, Constantine XI knew there would be no mercy, as seen by the three day of mass murder, rape and pillage the Ottoman’s committed after the capture of the city. He is not only remembered for being the last Byzantine Emperor who put up a brave last stand against the Ottomans, but also for his last speech to his officers and allies before the Fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453 by Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II. But you are all familiar with their chattering and I need say no more about it. I have read it several times and this is a copy I typed from the "Fall of Byzantium" by George Sprantzes. Appendix F: Constantine's Speech to the Council of Nicea. For this reason I am imploring you to fight like men with brave souls, as you have done from the beginning up to this day, against the enemy of our faith. Well, my brothers, if we must fight for one of these obligations, we will be even more liable under the command strength of all four; as you can clearly understand. Yet now too, my brothers, feel no cowardice, even if small parts of our fortifications have collapsed from the explosions and engine missiles, as you can see, we made all possible, necessary repairs. “Well, my brothers, if we must fight for one of these obligations, we will be even more liable under the command strength of all four; as you can clearly understand. In 1453, when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks, he was last seen fighting at the city walls, but the actual circumstances of his death have remained surrounded in myth. If not then this is a severely reduced version comparred with Carroll’s translation. In the midst of tears and sighs he gave thanks to God, and all teh rest, in union answered in sobbing: “Let us die for our faith in Christ and for our fatherland.” The emperor listened and thanked the crowd profusely, pledged many gifts, and added: “Well then my brothers and fellow soldiers, be prepared for the morning. With this he concluded his speech. I dont speak or read greek. Best, Shame on you for skpping a key part ” the hope and joy of all Hellens”. Change ). Constantine Palaologus XI speaks before his officers and allies before the final push of the siege of Constantinople by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed Bey. Present your shield, swords, arrows, and spears to them, imagining that you are a hunting party after wild boars, so that the impious may learn that they are dealing not with dumb animals but with their lords and masters, the descendants of the Greeks and the Romans. It was an end of an already dying empire but his speech is very moving and demonstrates the human spirit when set against great odds. If one dumb beast put another to flight, we, the masters of horses and animals, can surely even do better against our advancing enemies, since they are dumb animals, worse even than pigs. Constantine … Final speech of the last Byzantine emperor: “Present your shield and sword descendants of Greeks”. When I check the original source there is a good portion missing. “This wretch of a Sultan has besieged our city up to now for fifty seven days with all his engines and strength; he has relaxed the blockade neither day nor night, but, by the grace of Christ, our Lord, who sees all things, the enemy has often been repelled, up to now, from our walls with shame and dishonor. I did not leave it out as this is not my translation. Consider then, my brothers and comrades in arms, how the commemoration of our death, our memory, fame and freedom can be rendered eternal.”, Greek citizens living abroad have always had the right to vote in Greek elections according…, In the northeastern part of Corfu, one finds an impressive house that overlooks the Ionian…, NOYNOY is a household name in Greece, with generations of children growing up drinking this…. Please confirm if nothing was left out. If God grants victory to the impious because of my own sins, we will endanger our lives for our holy faith, which Christ gave us with his own blood. For these reasons, my fellow soldiers, prepare yourselves, be firm, and remain valiant, for the pity of God. This page is offered as a memorial to the Blessed Constantine XI Paleologos, the last Emperor of the East Roman Empire, martyred by the forces of Sultan Mehmet during the assault on The City on May 29, 1453. Second, we will be deprived of such famous homeland and of our liberty. Im at the mercy of the translations I used. He died fighting in the… I can tell you that this city mastered the entire universe; She placed beneath her feet Pontus, Armenia, Paphlagonia, The Amazonian lands, Cappadocia, Galatia, Media, Georgian Colchis, Bosphoros, Albania, Syria, Cilicia, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Palestine, Arabia, Judea, Bactria, Scythia, Macedonia, Thessaly, Boeotia, Locris, Aetolia, Arcarnania, Achaea, the Peloponnese, Epirus, Illyria, Lykhnites, the Adriatic, Italy, Tuscany, the Celts, and Galatian Celts, Spain up to Cadiz, Libya, Mauritania, Ethiopia, Beledes, Scude, Numidia, Africa and Egypt. You are protected inside the walls, while they will advance without cover and with toil. Emperor Constantine XI named Giustiniani commander of his land defenses and spent the rest of the winter strengthening the city for a siege. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. “Most noble … Protect your heads with shields in combat and battle. The version I have has a lot more after the word camel…about an entire page worth. “Consider then, my brothers and comrades in arms, how the commemoration of our death, our memory, fame and freedom can be rendered eternal.”, He next turned and addressed the Venetians, who were standing at his right side: “Noble Venetians, my dearest brothers in Christ, courageous men, experienced and seasoned fighters! Constantine XI Dragaš Palaeologus (1404–1453): The Last Emperor of Byzantium Then he put our farms, gardens, parks, and houses to the torch, while he killed and enslaved as many of our Christian brothers as he found; he broke the treaty of friendship. At the time, Mistra, a fortified town also called Sparta or Lacedaemon due to its proximity to the ancient city,was a center of arts and culture rivalling Constantinople. You have often assisted her willingly in hours of need and have delivered her from her enemies, the sons of Hagar. Keep your right hand, armed with the sword, extended in front of you at all times. Second, we will be deprived of such famous homeland and of our liberty. Constantine became the Despotes of the Morea (the medieval name for the Peloponnesus) in October 1443, ruling from the fortress and palace in Mistra. The last Byzantine Emperor, born in 1404, was a son of Emperor Manuel II Palaeologus (1391-1425) and of Helen Dragash, a Serbian Princess. Where did you get this from? Does this speech even exist in Sphrantzes' text? We are placing all hope in the irresistible glory of God. At first, the Byzantine Empire was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the east.In 330 C.E., the Roman emperor Constantine moved his capital from Rome to the city of Byzantium. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. I will add it in. But I hope that such things will not harm us; I see, greatly rejoice, and nourish with hopes in my mind that even if we are few, you are all experienced and seasoned warriors – courageous, brave, and well prepared. At this point, women and children had joined in the defense. Well my brothers, since he started the siege and the blockade, every day he opens his fathomless mouth and is seeking an opportunity to devour us and this city, which thrice-blessed Constantine the Great founded and dedicated to the all holy most chaste Mother of God, our lady, Mary the eternal virgin. Constantine XI Palaiologos was the last Christian Emperor of Constantinople and Byzantium. This wretch of a Sultan has besieged our city up to now for fifty seven days with all his engines and strength; he has relaxed the blockade neither day nor night, but, by the grace of Christ, our Lord, who sees all things, the enemy has often been repelled, up to now, from our walls with shame and dishonour. The process of vaccination of over 85 years is progressing smoothly in Crete, Creta Live…, Final speech of the last Byzantine emperor: “Present your shield and sword descendants of Greeks”, ‘Casa Odyssia’ in Corfu overlooks the Ionian Sea, “Greece 2021″ committee releases official memorabilia, Athens and Santorini named two of the ‘Most Instagrammable places in the world for 2021′, The New York Times picked Andros as one of its ’52 Places to Love in 2021′, Olympic star Sofia Bekatorou reveals sex abuse after Sydney Olympics, Voting in the next Greek elections? ( Log Out /  Before fighting the Ottomans, Emperor Constantine XI addressed his people one last time. The last speech of the last Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos ist a quite haunting "this is our last stand". “For these reasons, my fellow soldiers, prepare yourselves, be firm, and remain valiant, for the pity of God, Take your example from the few elephants of the Carthaginians and how they dispersed the numerous cavalry of the Romans with their noise and appearance. On the morning of May 29, two massive Turkish assaults were successfully repulsed. Often have you dealt death to the multitude of the sons of Hagar with your shining swords and grace; their blood has flown in streams at your hands. Fourth, we will be separated from our dearest children, wives and relatives. ( Log Out /  Yet now too, my brothers, feel no cowardice, even if small parts of our fortifications have collapsed from the explosions and engine missiles, as you can see, we made all possible, necessary repairs. It had long been under the Frankish principality of 'Achaia' Constantine was crowned Emperor January 6, 1449 AD succeeding his brother. Some have faith in armament, others in cavalry, might and numbers but we believe in the name of our Lord, our God and Savior, and second, in our arms and strength granted to us by divine power. Once more, I ask and beg you to act in this hour as loyal allies, fellow Christians, and brothers.”, Turning to his left, he addressed the Genoese: “Most honored brothers from Genoa, courageous and illustrious warriors! ( Log Out /  But I hope that such things will not harm us; I see, greatly rejoice, and nourish with hopes in my mind that even if we are few, you are all experienced and seasoned warriors- courageous, brave, and well prepared. Highly recommend! Margaret Carroll. T. D. BARNES; CONSTANTINE'S SPEECH TO THE ASSEMBLY OF THE SAINTS: PLACE AND DATE OF DELIVERY, The Journal of Theological Studies, Volume 52, Issue 1, … The original historical source though is: George Sphrantzes – The Fall of the Byzantine Empire. Even if one gains the entire world but loses his soul in the process, what will be the benefit! Then he put our farms, gardens, parks, and houses to the torch, while he killed and enslaved as many of our Christian brothers as he found; he broke the treaty of friendship. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos is not only remembered for being the last Byzantine Emperor who put up a brave last stand against the Ottomans, but also for his last speech to his officers and allies before the Fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453 by Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II. He died fighting in the streets of Constantinople. When Constantinople’s walls were finally breached, Constantine XI knew there would be no quarter, but he would not flee with the Genoese generals. They attempt to frighten us with loud yells and innumerable battle cries. I still can’t figure out which book in my library I sourced it from, but I have a copy of Sphrantzes book in PDF. You are well aware that this irreligious Sultan, the enemy of our holy faith, violated for no good reason the peace treaty we had with him and disregarded his numerous oaths without a second thought. You know well, my brothers, that we have four obligations in common, which force us to prefer death over survival: first our faith and piety; second our homeland; third, the emperor anointed by the Lord, and fourth; our relatives and friends. She became the Queen of Cities, the shield and aid of our homeland, the shelter of Christians, the hope and joy of all wishes to destroy this city, which was once proud and blooming like a rose of the field. When you say Carroll do you mean Warren H Carroll or a different historian? This is most important of all. Rumours of Constantine XI's survival and subsequent rescue by an angel led many to hope that the city would one day return to Christian hands. I hand over to you my glorious, famous, respected, noble city, the shining Queen of Cities, our homeland. St. Vincent of Lerins Defends The Importance Of Tradition – Circa A.D.437. However, the last emperor of the more than 1,000 year old empire did not flee with the Genoese generals and many civilians to Italy, he instead died fighting in the streets of Constantinople – but not before giving one last epic speech: “Most noble leader, illustrious tribunes, generals, most courageous fellow soldiers and all loyal honest citizens! “The enemy…are supported by guns, cavalry, infantry, and their numerical superiority, but we rely on the name of the Lord our God and Savior, and secondly, on our hands and the strength which has been granted to us by the power of God.” They attempt to frighten us with loud yells and innumerable battle cries. You know well, my brothers, that we have four obligations in common, which force us to prefer death over survival: first our faith and piety; second our homeland; third, the emperor anointed by the Lord and fourth; our relatives and friends. He knew his city would fall, he knew he would die, he knew all about the past glory of the Roman Empire and that he was in the same line as Caesar, Augustus, Konstantine, Justinian, and he knew that this line would end with him. If yes , it is a shame indeed. For a long time they will continue so and will also release over us countless rocks, all sorts of arrows and missiles, like the sand of the sea. Once again, it is time to demonstrate your love in Christ, your bravery, and your excellence in her cause.”, Then he spoke to the combined assembly: “There is no time for longer speeches. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. In the last speech of the last Roman emperor, Constantine Palaologus XI speaks before his officers and allies as the Mohammedans prepared to … Constantine 's speech to the Kerkoporta Gate glory of God before fighting the Ottomans discovered a door to! Yours too for many reasons hacked off ; he kissed empty eye where. 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