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Arizona: Arizona became the 47th state of the United States on February 14, 1947. The Arizona Republic became a daily paper in 1890, with Ed Gill as its editor. Arizona became a territory in 1863. [11], Arizona's last major drought occurred during Dust Bowl years of 1933–34. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California, ("New California"), also known as Alta California ("Upper California"). Many farmers collect the subsidies but no longer grow cotton. On March 16 the convention adopted a secession ordinance citing the region's common interests and geography with the Confederacy, the need of frontier protection and the loss of postal service routes under the United States government as reasons for their separation. [47], On June 30, 2013, nineteen members of the Prescott Fire Department were killed fighting the Yarnell Hill Fire. Efforts to gain statehood started as early as 1850, but they were unsuccessful. More than 100 years ago, Arizona became the last of the contiguous U.S. states to be signed into statehood, but it did not happen so easily. Most efforts made in the Mexican-American community represented localized American home front activities that were separate from the activities of the Anglo community. Prescott became the capital in 1864, Tucson in 1867, Prescott again in 1877, and finally Phoenix in … Gila Trail becomes one of the main routes to the gold fields. Arizona became a territory in 1863. For example, Goldwater supported the controversial Colorado River Storage Project (CRSP). In 1863, the U.S. split up New Mexico along a north–south line to create the Arizona Territory. The creation of the Union Arizona Territory (two years after the ill-fated Confederate Arizona Territory) by the "Arizona Organic Act" on February 24, 1863, removed all the land west of the 109th meridian from the New Mexico Territory, i.e. Major Lynde then abandoned Fort Fillmore and began a march north to join the troops at Fort Craig under Colonel Edward R. S. Canby. Arizona is bordered to the west by California and Nevada, to the north by Utah, … Confederate Arizona, officially the Territory of Arizona, and commonly known as the Arizona Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the Confederate States that existed from August 1, 1861, until May 26, 1865, when the Trans-Mississippi Department, commanded by General E. Kirby Smith, surrendered at Shreveport, Louisiana. [16] They bought shares in the Vizina mine, water rights, and gambling concessions, but Virgil, Morgan and Wyatt were soon appointed as federal and local marshals. [14] Mining operations flourished in numerous boom towns, such as Bisbee, Jerome, Douglas, Ajo and Miami. [12] Most of the land in Arizona is owned by the federal government which leased grazing land to ranchers at low cost. On 24 February 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed into law a measure creating the new Territory of Arizona. The mineral exploration in Arizona gained momentum after the Mexican-American war in the 1840’s. Arizona was originally part of New Mexico, being ceded to the United States in 1848, and became a separate territory in 1863. On Feb. 14, 1912, President William Howard Taft signed Arizona into the Union. Cotton acreage plunged from 120,000 acres in 1997 to only 40,000 acres in 2005, even as the federal treasury gave the state's farmers over $678 million in cotton subsidies. Arizona had a bumpy road to statehood.On Feb. 14, 1912, President William Howard Taft signed Arizona into the Union. Corral, the most famous gunfight of the Old West. The Groundwater Management Act of 1980, sponsored by Governor Bruce Babbitt, raised the price of water to farmers, while cities had to reach a "safe yield" so that the groundwater usage did not exceed natural replenishment. The Confederate territory overlapped the Arizona Territory created by the Union government in 1863, but the physical geography differed in that the Confederate Arizona Territory was approximately the southern half of the pre-existing New Mexico Territory, while the Union Arizona Territory was approximately the western half of what had been New Mexico Territory. [42], In 1954, two developers bought 320 acres (1.3 km2) of farmland near Phoenix and opened the nation's first planned community dedicated exclusively to retirees at Youngtown. He also started building a coalition to develop the state's water resources, a lifelong interest. Real estate entrepreneurs catered to them with new communities with amenities pitched to older people, and with few facilities for children. Before the Picacho Pass skirmish, Union and Confederate forces fought a smaller engagement known as the Battle of Stanwix Station. [8] Fort Huachuca, east of Tucson, was founded in 1877 as the base for operations against Apaches and raiders from Mexico. There were also several engagements between Apaches and Confederates. Construction of military bases in Arizona was a national priority because of the state's excellent flying weather and clear skies, large amounts of unoccupied land, good railroads, cheap labor, low taxes, and its proximity to California's aviation industry. If you have paid attention to Arizona, you probably are aware that the state of Arizona has grown rapidly in population over recent decades. In 1850, Arizona and New Mexico formed the New Mexico Territory. In 1981 Sandra Day O'Connor became the first woman on the U.S. Supreme Court; she served until 2006. From 1913 to 1933 the fort was the base for the "Buffalo Soldiers" of the 10th Cavalry Regiment. [citation needed] During the Civil War, on March 16, 1861, citizens in southern New Mexico Territory around Mesilla (now in New Mexico) and Tucson invited take-over by the Confederacy. The proposal to organize the Confederate Territory of Arizona was passed by the Confederate Congress in early 1862 and proclaimed by President Jefferson Davis on February 14, 1862. This time Washington stepped in as the Agricultural Adjustment Administration spent $100 million to buy up the starving cattle. Illegal immigration continued to be a prime concern within the state, and in April 2010, Arizona SB1070 was passed and signed into law by Governor Jan Brewer. In 1885 Lewis Williams opened a copper smelter in Bisbee and the copper boom began, as the nation turned to copper wires for electricity. Western story tellers and Hollywood film makers made as much money in Tombstone as anyone, thanks to the arrival of Wyatt Earp and his brothers in 1879. Let us count the ways", History of Phoenix, Arizona § Bibliography, The Arizona State Archives has government and private collections relating to Arizona History, A chronology of historical events in Arizona from the state's library, Arizona's Ordinance of Secession, March 16, 1861, Independence of Spanish continental Americas, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France, Law of coartación (which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others),, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Haskett, Bert. The Pueblos in Arizona were relatively peaceful through the Navajo and Apache Wars. The Taylor Grazing Act placed federal and state agencies in control of livestock numbers on public lands. One result was that large herds of wild cattle roamed southeastern Arizona, By 1850, the herds were gone, killed by Apaches, American sportsmen, contract hunting for the towns of Fronteras and Santa Cruz, and roundups to sell to hungry Mexican War soldiers. In February 1858, the New Mexico territorial legislature adopted a resolution in favor of the creation of the Arizona territory, but with a north-south border along the 32nd meridian west from Washington with the additional stipulation that all the Indians of New Mexico would be removed to northern Arizona. [25] Hispanics had little voice or power. Resistance in Arizona continued at the partisan level, and Confederate units under the banner of Arizona fought until the end of the war in May 1865. In early 1862, Confederate President Jefferson Davis created the Confederate Territory of Arizona. About 80% of the state's cotton is exported to textile factories in China and (since the passage of NAFTA) to Mexico.[46]. Arizona was part of the state of Sonora, Mexico from 1822, but the settled population was small. Corral (1957) and Hour of the Gun (1967), Frank Perry's Doc (1971), George Cosmatos's Tombstone (1993), and Lawrence Kasdan's Wyatt Earp (1994). Arizona was part of the state of Sonora, Mexico from 1822, but the settled population was small. However, his retreat came to a halt in severe heat and was overtaken by Baylor. The Confederate Arizona Territory was thought to be important to the role of the New Mexico Territory in the American Civil War primarily because it offered Confederate access to California. Before 1846 the Apache raiders expelled most Mexican ranchers. He wrote: I feel very definitely that the [Nixon] administration is absolutely correct in cracking down on companies and corporations and municipalities that continue to pollute the nation's air and water. In the 1850’s prospectors began to move into the Arizona Territory when the gold fields of California began to play out. Apache Wars. Did you know Arizona was a territory for 49 years before it became a state? At first local, state and private relief efforts focused on charity, especially by the Community Chest and Organized Charities programs. Arizona was granted part of the territory of New Mexico until it was organized into a separate territory on February 24, 1863. [18][19], By 1869 Americans were reading John Wesley Powell's reports of his explorations of the Colorado River. Chinese merchants helped supply General John Pershing's army in its expedition against Pancho Villa. Only one small battle took place, in September 1881, with three soldiers wounded. In 1901, the Santa Fe Railroad[20] reached Grand Canyon's South Rim. With railroad, restaurant and hotel entrepreneur Fred Harvey leading the way, large-scale tourism began that has never abated. It was established on September 18, 1851, by Col. Edwin V. Sumner to create a military presence in Diné bikéyah (Navajo territory). The history of Arizona encompasses Spanish, Mexican, and American periods. Starting in 1853, the entirety of present-day Arizona was part of the New Mexico Territory. Bascom Affair pits Army against Chiricahua Apaches. When President Theodore Roosevelt visited Arizona in 1913, the Hopi Indians honored him with a demonstration of the ritual Hopi snake dance. By July 1862, Union forces were approaching the territorial capital of Mesilla and the Confederates escaped to Texas. On February 14th, 1912 Arizona was admitted as a state. [28], The Great Depression of 1929-39 hit Arizona hard. The 92nd and 93rd Infantry Divisions, composed of African-American troops, trained there. [28], Reelection followed every six years as he advanced toward the chairmanship of the powerful Appropriations Committee, which he reached in 1955. In the end, Wilson believes, sportsmen and environmentalists maintained a political advantage by denouncing the ranchers as political corrupted land-grabbers who exploited the publicly owned natural resources.[13]. [24], In 1912, Arizona almost entered the Union as part of New Mexico in a Republican plan to keep control of the U.S. Senate. Local cattleman organizations were formed to handle these problems. [48] The fatalities were members of the Granite Mountain Hotshots, a hotshot crew,[49] of whom only one survived as they were working in another location. Some Mexican settlement took place in the 1840’s, but about 70% the territory became part of the United States at the conclusion of the Mexican-American war in 1848. On July 27 the two armies met outside of town at the Battle of Mesilla in a brief engagement in which the Union troops were defeated. On February 23, 1883 United Verde Copper Company was incorporated under New York law. Sumner broke up the fort at Santa Fe for this purpose, creating the first military post in what is now Arizona. In 1849, the California Gold Rush led as many as 50,000 miners to travel across the region, leading to a boom in Arizona's population. And, notably, she became the first Democratic presidential candidate since at least 1960 to do better in Maricopa than she did in the rest of the state (where she lost by 5 points). However, signs of success started showing in the late 19th century and the early 20th century. To commemorate this event, February 14, 1912, the fiftieth anniversary, was selected as official date of statehood for Arizona. Many people in the area were pro-slavery, with business connections in southern states, and this new territory lay below the old Missouri Compromise line of demarcation between slave and free states. Melanie Sturgeon, "Belgian Jennie" Bauters: Mining-Town Madam, Grace Peña Delgado, "Of Kith and Kin: Land, Leases, and 'Guanxi' in Tucson's Chinese and Mexican Communities, the 1880s-1920s,", Cindy Hayostek, "Douglas Delegates to the 1910 Constitutional Convention and Arizona's Progressive Heritage,", Linda C. Noel, "' I am an American': Anglos, Mexicans, Nativos, and the National Debate over Arizona and New Mexico Statehood,", Jack L. August, Jr., "Water, Politics, and the Arizona Dream: Carl Hayden and the Modern Origins of the Central Arizona Project, 1922-1963,", James A. Williams, "Before the New Deal" Private Charity and Government Efforts to Help the Poor in Tucson, 1929-1933,", Christine Marín, "Mexican Americans on the Home Front: Community Organizations in Arizona During World War II,", Julie A. Campbell, "Madres Y Esposas: Tucson's Spanish-American Mothers and Wives Association,", Thomas Fujita-Rony, "Arizona and Japanese American History: The World War II Colorado River Relocation Center,". Arizona was part of the state of Sonora, Mexico from 1822, but the settled population was small. By means of the Gadsden Purchase, the United States secured the northern part of the state of Sonora, which is now Arizona south of the Gila River in 1854. The first capital in 1863 was Fort Whipple in Chino Valley, Arizona. The mission was deactivated in 1828. Dramatic growth came after 1945, as retirees who appreciated the warm weather and low costs emigrated from the northeast. [29], Construction programs were important, especially the Hoover Dam (originally called Boulder Dam), begun by President Herbert Hoover. Walter Noble Burns's novel Tombstone (1927) made Earp famous. Arizona Became a New Territory February 24, 1863 Native Americans have always maintained a strong presence in Arizona. [38], Despite being a small state, Arizona produced several national leaders for both the Republican and Democratic parties. Different agencies promoted aid to the unemployed, tuberculosis patients, transients, and illegal immigrants. The Territory of Arizona was a territory claimed by the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, between 1861 and 1865. Before the start of the war the land of the current states of New Mexico and Arizona was part of the New Mexico Territory and the Gadsden Purchase which ran parallel to filibuster Republics of Lower California and Sonora. [10] The Territory experienced a cattle boom in 1873–91, as the herds were expanded from 40,000 to 1.5 million head. Some of the community projects were cooperative ventures in which members of both the Mexican-American and Anglo communities participated. [17], In the aftermath, Virgil Earp was maimed in an ambush and Morgan Earp was assassinated while playing billiards. Gold discovered in California. [4] Small skirmishes were common between raiding Navajo and counter raiding citizens. As respectability closed in on her, in 1903 she relocated to the mining camp of Acme. However for a time it did operate as a de facto, if not de jure, government for the intended Arizona Territory. He appointed himself as permanent governor. "The Arizona Cattle Industry: Its Political and Public Image 1950–1963. The history of Arizona encompasses Spanish, Mexican, and American periods. When the end of Confederate rule arrived, the Fort Yuma on the Arizona side was abandoned by Confederate cavalry troops who were mostly immigrant Irish. Other developers copied the popular model, and by 2000 18% of the retirees in the state lived in such "lifestyle" communities.[42]. Prescott, which had about 2,000 residents then, saw 1,000 willing volunteers—the same kind of response came from the booming mining towns of Jerome and Bisbee. The year 1891 was marked by the greatest flood in the Valley's history, as well as by the advent of the first telephone system in Phoenix. The first was Fort Defiance. They solidified Earp's modern reputation as the Old West's deadliest gunman. [26] In 1912 women gained suffrage in the state, eight years before the country as a whole. The Confederate States of America claims Arizona as a confederate territory. Thus anti-slavery Congressmen feared that the new territory might eventually become a slave state. 1861 map of the USA showing the Confederate Arizona Territory. [15] Silver was discovered in 1877, and by 1881 the town had a population of over 10,000. Arizona Became a New Territory February 24, 1863 Native Americans have always maintained a strong presence in Arizona. Judith Ann Trolander, "Age 55 or Better: Active Adult Communities and City Planning". [7], Fort Apache was built on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation by soldiers from the 1st Cavalry and 21st Infantry in 1870. The area was attached to the United States in 1848 as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican-American War. The Bosque was a complete failure. Arizona, the Grand Canyon state, achieved statehood on February 14, 1912, the last of the 48 coterminous United States to be admitted to the union. Arizona became a Mexican territory, as a part of Alta California, after the Mexican War of Independence in 1821. Military installations peppered the state, such as Davis-Monthan Field in Tucson, the main training center for air force bomber pilots. [37] By 1959, Hughes Aircraft had built advanced missiles with 5,000 workers in Tucson. Chinese leased land from Mexicans, operated grocery stores, and aided compatriots attempting to enter the United States from Mexico after the Mexican Revolution in 1910. They avoided capture by Union soldiers by fleeing to Mexico 10 miles away. Arizona became a state in 1912 but was primarily rural with an economy based on cattle, cotton, citrus, and copper. High-tech firms such as Motorola, Hughes Aircraft, Goodyear Aircraft, Honeywell, and IBM had offices in the Phoenix area. In 1905, she was murdered by a man who had posed as her husband. In 1863, President Lincoln signed a bill making the western half of the New Mexico Territory a separate territory named Arizona. Before the start of the war the land of the current states of New Mexico and Arizona was part of the New Mexico Territory and the Gadsden Purchase which ran parallel to filibuster Republics of Lower California and Sonora. She was an astute businesswoman with an eye for real estate appreciation, and a way with the town fathers of Jerome regarding taxes and restrictive ordinances. Was Arizona a colony before? James Wilson states that after 1950, higher fees and restrictions in the name of land conservation caused a sizable reduction in available grazing land. It is a concrete arch-gravity dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on the border with Nevada. On February 14th, 1912 Arizona was admitted as a state. It was remote and poor and seldom had outside contacts. However, after much effort, on January 6, 1912 New Mexico became the 47th state and on February 14, 1912 Arizona became the 48th state in the Union. The town was named after the family which had invested a large amount of capitol. Other concerns were the lack of substantial numbers of troops to fight the Apaches who were terrorizing travelers, ranches and mining camps all over Traditional Arizona following the Bascom Affair. [45], Cotton acreage declined dramatically, freeing up land for suburban sprawl as well as releasing large amounts of water and ending the need for expensive specialized machinery. the first who discovered Arizona was Esteban, Heavy government spending during World War II revitalized the Arizona economy, which was still based on copper mining, citrus and cotton crops and cattle ranching, with a growing tourist business. [27] He was the son of a Yankee merchant who had moved to Tempe because he needed dry heat for his bad lungs. Arizona was declared part of the Territory of New Mexico until southern New Mexico seceded from the Union as the Confederate Territory of Arizona … However with the Mexican-American War in 1847, the area of present-day Arizona was given up and it eventually became a part of the Territory of New Mexico. Brian Allen Drake, "The Skeptical Environmentalist: Senator Barry Goldwater and the Environmental Management State". It was constructed by the Federal Bureau of Reclamation between 1931 and 1936. Prior to the creation of the Nevada Territory, the area was part of western Utah Territory and was known as Washoe, after the native Washoe people. Alaska's statehood was proclaimed on January 3, 1958, by President Dwight Eisenhower. These secessionists hoped that a Confederate Territory of Arizona (CSA) would take control, but in March 1862, Union troops from California captured the Confederate Territory of Arizona and returned it to the New Mexico Territory. Democrats Bruce Babbitt (Governor 1978–87)[39] and Morris Udall (Congressman 1961–90)[40] were contenders for their party's presidential nominations.

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