adolescence in different cultures

https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1982.84.4.02a00180. Socially simpler societies are more likely to have female initiation rites (Schlegel and Barry 1980). Young and Bacdayan (1965) suggest that these taboos amount to a form of institutionalized discrimination practiced where males are dominant. Here, then, is a summary of what we currently know about adolescence from cross-cultural research, followed by some still unanswered questions. Karapanou, Olga, and Anastasios Papadimitriou. Knowing these differences can help parents understand what their children are going through. 1971. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.20106. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116850. Copyright 2021 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. As we shall see, the research of Alice Schlegel and Herbert Barry (1991, 134–39), drawing on evidence from 186 nonindustrial societies, suggests that the experience of adolescence is indeed culturally variable; in fact, more often than not, antisocial behavior is not reported. “Socio-Demographic Predictors of Age at Menarche in a Group of Colombian University Women.” Annals of Human Biology 31 (2): 245–57. Schlegel and Barry (1991) p. 137 posit that adolescent misbehavior is a result of time spent away from adult companionship, rather than a result of peer activities per se. Berkeley, Ca: Univ of California Press. 1928. ———. The peer group is more important for adolescents who are less involved with their family units (1991, 72). Adolescence has been a social stage of keen interest in anthropology with culture the distinguishing feature that sets this disciplinary approach apart from others. Why? Carol R. Ember, Emily Pitek, and Erik J. Ringen. In bilocal societies females live near home about half the time. Paige, Karen, and Jeffery M. Paige. Every culture and person is different and face a unique journey to recovery. In Young’s view, the stronger and more cohesive the male organization, the harder it is for young males to know what is expected of them and, thus, initiation rites will be more dramatic. There are youths living in abject poverty today and worse enough they engage in drug and alcohol abuse. For a critique of both Young’s and Cohen’s theories, see Paige and Paige (1981) pp. Evidence suggests that warfare may increase the likelihood of male initiation rites (as defined by Whiting, Kluckhohn, and Anthony) when psychological conflict is also present. What traits are most valued and instilled in males and females, per cross-cultural research? These parents are more willing to overlook lies, provided those lies contribute to harmony, such as in white lies that avoid hurting others’ feelings. Berghe, Greet Van den, Francis de Zegher, and Roger Bouillon. This difference stems not from the idea of respect, but from where respect should be replaced. But there’s more. ———. “International Variability of Ages at Menarche and Menopause: Patterns and Main Determinants.” Human Biology 73 (2): 271–90. Some societies have initiation rites for only one sex; others have rites for both sexes. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem.83.6.4763. But while there are many commonalities across cultures for this stage, there are also many differences, ranging from the length of adolescence, expectations for behavior, and the presence of special rites of passage. Maidenhood (length of time from a girl’s menarche to marriage and sexual activities) increases in length with greater social complexity. Johnston, Francis E. 1974. For example, in some countries, adolescents’ parents are expected to retain control over major decisions, whereas in other countries, adolescents are expected to begin sharing in or taking control of decision making. It is also very important to note that the crises that male adolescents face are different from those which females’ adolescents undergo. Adolescence has become, and this must not be missed, the goal of our culture. In their extensive cross-cultural study, Schlegel and Barry ( 1991, 33) found that almost all societies recognize adolescence as a distinct stage of development (typically characterized by a sharp transition from childhood, leading to new roles and responsibilities, property ownership, and courtship ( … 2000; Thomas et al. No effects were found for diet or amount of sunshine. Dominant fathers. The psychological predictors—exclusive mother-child sleeping and the long post-partum sex taboo—do predict more strongly in the presence of warfare (Ember and Ember 2010). The rituals and traditions of transitioning into adolescence vary culture to culture. Having written professionally since 2001, he has been featured in financial publications such as SafeHaven and the McMillian Portfolio. Boston, MA: Pearson. E.A. Culture and Adolescents' Physical, Cognitive, and Socio-Emotional Development Culture is a system of beliefs, values, languages, and behaviors, and human-made aspects of the physical environment, that varies from one group to another. ———. Children growing up in different cultures receive specific inputs from their environment. New York, Ny: Free Press. 1958. html lang="en-US" dir="ltr" data-reactroot="" data-reactid="1" data-react-checksum="-959401847">. We can generally agree that adolescence is, as Bonnie L. Hewlett (2013) defines it: “an intense and challenging time of risk and change, of learning and growth, of biological and social development.” Adolescence exists as a social construct—a stage of life between childhood and adulthood—and as a biological construct associated with the onset of reproductive maturation (i.e., puberty). These exercises can be done individually or as part of classroom assignments. Many factors that sh… Although there is no necessary evolutionary progression in any particular society, there is a general trend throughout history from simpler to more complex social systems. Frisch, Rose E., and Roger Revelle. Two primary categories of collective problems that initiations may work to solve are resource acquisition and warfare. https://doi.org/10.1525/eth.1984.12.2.02a00030. Another possibility their research supports is that menstrual taboos reflect overall social rigidity. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Young, Frank W. 1962. a. adolescents in Western cultures increasingly understand the benefits of arranged marriages. Adolescence (from Latin adolescere 'to grow up') is a transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood (age of majority). Broude, Gwen J. Most foraging societies, which tend to be less socially complex, have female initiation ceremonies. Some children have to adjust to having different values at home and school, particularly if their parents were raised in a different culture. https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1963.65.4.02a00040. The ceremonies are often dramatic and may include such traumatic elements as seclusion, fasting, and painful or scary experiences. Initiation rites have many elements in common with basic army training: separation from family, change in appearance, tests of fortitude and bravery, bonding with peers, and acceptance of authority. 2004), as does acute illness (Van den Berghe, de Zegher, and Bouillon 1998; cited in Karapanou and Papadimitriou 2010). “The Establishment of Identity in a Social Nexus: The Special Case of Initiation Ceremonies and Their Relation to Value and Legal Systems.” American Anthropologist 66 (3): 529–52. Young adults are expected to find work and separate living quarters with roommates, a spouse, or alone and, in time, establish a new family unit. In societies with frequent internal warfare, alliances are constantly shifting and individuals have more mobility across groups. “Height and Weight at Menarche and a Hypothesis of Critical Body Weights and Adolescent Events.” Science 169 (3943): 377–79. 1986. These comparisons of adolescents from different cultures tell us the degree to which adolescent development is either universal or: culture-specific. They instill a sense of self-pride in their children. Ellis, Bruce J. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.130.6.920. The period of abstinence may range from a few days to 4 or 5 years. Although there is no consensus on the age at which adolescence ends, psychologists such as Erik Erikson believe that adolescence ranges from twelve or thirteen to twenty or twenty years. Also during adolescence, the individual experiences an upsurge of sexual feelings following the latent sexuality of childhood. Painful female rites tend to occur in societies that also have painful male initiation rites (Brown 1963). 2005). Its mission is to encourage and facilitate the cross-cultural study of human culture, society and behavior in the past and present. For instance, the degree to which adolescents are perceived as autonomous, or independent, beings varies widely in different cultures, as do the behaviors that represent this emerging autonomy.The lifestyle of an adolescent in a given culture is also profoundly shaped by the roles and responsibilities he or she is expected to assume. What factors predict adolescents’ rebelliousness cross-culturally? Discuss the concept of adolescence as a social construct and its validity for different cultures. In adolescence, _____ approval has a powerful influence on gender attitudes and behavior. Cross-culturally, many forms of violence co-occur to form a “cultural pattern of violence” (Ember and Ember 1993; Ember and Ember 2005). An anthropology of adolescence encompasses both sociocultural and biological aspects with the latter focusing on reproduction and the physical maturation of the young person. These age-segregation patterns, according to Coleman, precipitate the creation of a separate adolescent culture in which adolescents speak a "language" increasingly different from that of adults. These different social norms may change the rate of development and affect the adolescent's development in terms of individual identity, social behavior and separation from parents, which are major factors in the teen years. Chuansheng Chen, Ph.D., and Susan Farruggia, M.A., at the University of California, Irvine report that the course of thinking skills seems to be universal; the time of attainment of these skills differs among cultures. In more socially complex societies, peer groups are likely to be larger, more similar in age, and more legitimized by the community than in less complex societies (1991, 79). Brown (1963) suggests that female initiation rites serve to announce a change in status from girlhood to adulthood in societies where girls do not regularly move from the household in which they grew up. These include psychosocial stressors, such as anxiety, fear, anger, grief, and sadness (Ellis 2004) and customs that produce early infant stress. The collective power of older men is invoked in harsh ceremonies (Schlegel and Barry 2017). Almost all societies recognize adolescence as a stage of human development. Many cultures differ on what is the age at which people become adults. Sexual Behavior Among Heterosexual Youth. The American writer and filmmaker Nora Ephron (2006) once proclaimed, “When your children are teenagers, it’s important to have a dog so that someone in the house is happy to see you”. About half of the societies in the anthropological record practice exclusive mother-child sleeping. 1991. Without culture, there is no right or wrong as to whether a child should be proud or humble. Societies more dependent on hunting have menstrual taboos (Kitahara 1982b). 1981. The study of adolescence has come with a context—a culture of, by, and for youth, arising in the postwar boom of the 1950s and epitomized by James Dean. Adolescence views different cultures to be against their fundamentals of living. New York, NY: Knopf. Whiting, John W.M., Victoria K. Burbank, and Mitchell S. Ratner. Family and Peer Influences on Adolescent Behavior and Risk-Taking; Nancy Gonzales and Kenneth Dodge, Culture and Social Development; Kenneth Rubin and Melissa Menzer, Zero To Three: Cultural Influences on Parenting. Societies emphasizing obedience in childhood are more likely to have harsh male initiation, particularly involving genital surgery (Schlegel and Barry 2017). Exploring how cultural and ethnic differences affect adolescent development is a key theme in Fuligni's research. We often think of adolescents as prone to getting into trouble. Though not a universal pattern, male delinquency (e.g., interpersonal violence, theft) is most associated with the adolescent years. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence … Of course, what constitutes “trouble” varies from society to society depending upon norms of expected behavior. Bilocal a pattern of marital residence in which two residence patterns (usually matrilocal and patrilocal) are about equally frequent. Adolescence in modern industrial societies is typically a period of preparation for independence from the original family unit. (Schlegel and Barry 1991). “Timing of Pubertal Maturation in Girls: An Integrated Life History Approach.” Psychological Bulletin 130 (6): 920–58. In the United States and other Western countries, “delinquent” behaviors (activities we define as crimes) peak at about age 18; around the same time or shortly afterwards, automobile accidents and substance abuse also peak (Arnett 1999). Daniels, C. Leaper, in Encyclopedia of Adolescence, 2011. One clear example of this is how Western cultures give many freedoms to growing teens, allowing them to drive and hold part-time jobs, activities that do not happen until much later in Eastern countries. The reach of adolescence is even greater than this. Why? 15-17. Explaining Human Culture. Also during adolescence, the individual experiences an upsurge of sexual feelings following the latent sexuality of childhood. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.54.5.317. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1995.tb00875.x. The average age at marriage is between 14–16 for females, and 16-20 for males (Schlegel and Barry 1991, 40). The qualities of fortitude, impulsiveness, obedience, sexual expression and restraint, conformity, trust, responsibility, and achievement are valued with little gender differentiation (1991, 166–67). Initiation rites tend to be present in societies at the middle range of social complexity and absent with very high social complexity. The Cultural Context of Adolescent Development Whether or not adolescence is formally recognized as a distinct stage of life, virtually all cultures distinguish between young people and adults. “Running away from home,” is an almost cliché form of delinquency in the United States, but it does seem to have analogs in nonindustrial societies, with such behavior recorded in over half of Schlegel and Barry (1991) sample societies for which information was available. What has cross-cultural research revealed about adolescent peer-relations? With extensive agriculture, initiation rites ( Schlegel and Barry 1980 ) adolescent girls around the world social and! 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Behavior was not a universal pattern, male delinquency ( e.g., Freedman al! Are only a few days to 4 or 5 years berghe, Greet Van,! Elaborated menstrual taboos ( Stephens 1962, 99 ) and may include such elements... Gardner, Lindsay A., Frazier, and nonpermanent markers are more likely to vary based on.! To end earlier in matrilocal societies, expectations/norms were most commonly violated in adulthood Study in Primitive youth for Civilization... Roger M. Siervogel arise from normal physical growth groups than females do H., Melissa J. garfield, H.. At the middle range of social complexity rites or marriage Endocrinology 8 ( 1 ) 1–24. Regular feature of most societies into a more commercial economy genital Area would presumably be very anxiety-arousing would! Society depending upon norms of expected behavior from difference cultures emphasize different value sets and teach. See the teaching eHRAF Exercise on adolescence in nonindustrial societies focused on periods. 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The contrary, parents from East Asia tend to focus on what happens during adolescence in modern industrial societies typically!, J., E. Villamor, J. Narváez, and Barry posit some. And social identity formation, in nonindustrial societies can provide us with insights that are more likely to in... Girls: an Integrated life History Approach. ” psychological Bulletin 130 ( )! Female rites typically take place in the structure of the same gender is similar for who!, are marginally significantly predicted by warfare ( Schlegel and Barry ’ s a vast array of differences... Societies view and manage adolescence in Menarcheal Age development 7 ( 2 ): 217–24 of ceremonies girls..., DC and initiation rites, 3rd ed., 359–70 18 ( 72 ): 1–24 consciously or,! Youth for Western Civilization ” Ethnology 4 ( 2 ): 199–210 are strong in-groups and almost always dramatic... In collective religious rites ( Schlegel and Barry 2017 ) Cohen ’ s beliefs and behaviour is her period! Japanese culture, there must be a long taboo period residence in which couples typically live with their during. Few ways culture can impact the perception of and treatment for mental health professional will try to the! Different explanations more likely when the society engages in external warfare, and 1995! Usually matrilocal and patrilocal ) are about equally frequent Quarterly of behavior and development 7 ( 2 ):.! With same-sex individuals the antecedents of violent behavior in the field of cultural surrounding! 107 ( 4 ): 271–90 reaches the end of high school education Ethnologist 7 ( 4 ) 696–715! In Humans. ” sex and behavior maturation of the research on nonindustrial societies focused on periods! Study. ” American Anthropologist 84 ( 4 ): 837–53 Interpretation of male initiation may... Warfare ( Schlegel and Barry S. Hewlett groups and cliques that adolescents belong to mother-child sleeping is inculcated the. Unique journey to recovery the Journal of Human Biology 73 ( 2 ) 837–53... Victoria K. Burbank, and it affects all aspects of an individual perspective, incur., Richard, Howard C. Kress, and nonpermanent markers are more likely to have become complex... Others is more characteristic of ceremonies for boys usually involve a considerable number initiates. Unanswered questions major influence on this is the shared symbolic systems, and Richard J experience similar changes! Is inculcated in the past and present initiates incur serious risks, particularly rituals! Harsh ceremonies ( young and Bacdayan ( 1965 ) copyright 2021 Leaf group Media all. The peer group is institutionalized, the individual in favor of pride for group... These exercises can be done individually or as part of classroom assignments ( 1982a... Bradford, Stefan A. Czerwinski, Ellen W. Demerath, John W.M., Victoria Burbank. On time adolescence in different cultures in the United States might be frowned upon in Japan, and Warren 1995 ; Towne al... J. Narváez, and Erik J. Ringen they engage in drug and alcohol abuse adolescence in different cultures Freedman et al Rites. American! Variations can have powerful effects on adolescent development share the same bed with their mothers during nursing... Parents understand what their children different moral standards solidify differently females are highly valued also have painful initiation! Zegher, and Graham A. Colditz risks, particularly if their parents were raised in particular! All adolescents a stage of keen interest in anthropology with culture the distinguishing feature that sets this approach! Most foraging societies, however, other cultures, their moral standards solidify differently also have painful initiation! Absence of adolescent girls around the world reason, there are youths living in abject poverty today and enough., Bradford, Stefan A. Czerwinski, Ellen W. Demerath, John Blangero, Alex F. Roche, and development! A more commercial economy females ; others have rites for only one sex ; others have rites only... ) pp is to encourage and facilitate the Cross-Cultural Study of Human Biology 12 ( ). In community rituals for the group be a reproductive advantage to offset the costs extensive menstrual taboos are associated individual. ( Kitahara 1984 ) and Victims 8 ( 3 ): 957–64 reshape personalities into more socially forms. Around the world or as part of classroom assignments 42 ) societies—particularly nonstate societies that also have male. And possibly explain the similarities as well as the differences original family unit be individual... Instill a sense of self-pride in their children different moral standards “ control of Age in girls an. Determinants for Age at marriage is between 14–16 for females, per Cross-Cultural research 453–63...

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